In 2010, when the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) mandated the use of selective catalytic reduction in diesel engines, fleet managers, long-haul truckers, and diesel truck aficionados all collectively had a "Chicken Little" moment.
Why? Diesel exhaust fluid, a consumable fluid, is required for diesel car owners to add to their vehicles in order for SCR to function properly. Nobody likes having to pay more money for a hassle.
Both humans and the environment may be harmed by diesel engine pollutants. International standards demand very effective exhaust after-treatment systems as a result to reduce negative effects. Diesel exhaust fluid (DEF), usually referred to by the trade name AdBlue®, is used in the after-treatment process to degrade hazardous pollutants. This is all the information you need to know about DEF, including what it is, why you need it, and how to use it.
What is Diesel Exhaust Fluid?
Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF), a mixture of urea and water that is pumped into the exhaust stream of diesel cars, converts NOx gasses (harmful pollutants) into nitrogen and water. The technique known as Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) was employed by automobile manufacturers in 2010 to conform to EPA emissions rules. The requirements can be fulfilled in this way without compromising engine performance or fuel efficiency. Since DEF is not a fuel additive, it is maintained in separate tanks.
First off, the technology is not new, despite the EPA only recently beginning to require targeted catalyst reduction. It was initially used to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions from coal-fired power stations, and it has been in use for about 50 years.
Never forget the significance of nitrogen oxides, as nitrogen monoxide and nitrogen dioxide are the principal chemicals that interfere with diesel combustion and have had a significant negative impact on the automobile sector.
The heat from the exhaust, the fluid, and a catalyst combine to transform the NOx into innocuous gases when diesel exhaust fluid (also known as DEF or AUS 32) is introduced into the diesel exhaust stream.
The global Diesel Exhaust Fluid Market is projected to grow from 35.3 Bn in 2021 to USD 53.5 Bn by 2032 at a CAGR of 6.5% in the forecast period, 2022-2030.
A 32.5% solution of technically pure urea in distilled water makes up diesel exhaust fluid. The DEF needs to adhere to strict purity criteria in order for the SCR unit to function effectively. This ISO standard is meant to guarantee that the diesel exhaust fluid used in SCR-equipped automobiles and trucks meets the purity standards set by diesel engine manufacturers as well as the quality needed to protect the environment and the emissions control system.
A voluntary program created to verify and monitor the quality features of diesel exhaust fluid intended for use in motor vehicles with diesel engines is the API Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) Certification Program. Marketers of diesel exhaust fluid who have proven that their goods meet the specifications of the most recent edition of ISO 22241 that is available may be granted permission to use the API Diesel Exhaust Fluid Certification Mark.
How does DEF work?
An SCR-equipped vehicle's exhaust stream must first travel through a particle filter in order to fully catch all soot and ash created by using relatively unclean fuel. As a result, the "rolling coal" problem with vintage diesel engines—which led to their disdain in the US during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s—is eliminated.
Diesel exhaust fluid is injected into the gaseous stream as the exhaust gas passes a nozzle that leaves the particle filter. DEF is produced using deionized water and an extremely pure form of urea. The material, which is largely utilized as a component of fertilizer in the agricultural industry, is now available in a more refined form.
After entering the engine, heated exhaust gas and DEF are transported to the catalytic converter. There, nitrogen and water are created from nitrogen dioxide and monoxide as a result of a reaction between the urea in the DEF and the exhaust gas and a variety of metallic components. Nitrogen, the primary component of the air we breathe, is safe for the environment. Water itself is everything that there is.
Diesel Affecting Human Health
Notwithstanding its advantages, diesel fuel has some risks. Nitrogen dioxide and nitric oxide are found in diesel fuel exhaust (together known as NOx). Even at comparatively low amounts, NOx is hazardous to humans when inhaled. It is far more harmful than gasoline (petrol) emissions, which are classed as a Category 2B or "potential" cause of cancer, according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer.
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH), a class of chemicals found in diesel exhaust, harm DNA and increase the risk of cancer. Lung cancer can develop as a result of lung inflammation and cell alterations brought on by particles. Bladder cancer has also been connected to these substances.
How Much DEF Do You Need?
Diesel cars use two to ten percent of the fuel that is used. Exhaust gas recirculation is a technology that is usually used in conjunction with DEF (EGR). The relationship between EGR and DEF is inverse; the more EGR an engine uses, the less DEF it needs.
A vehicle's need for DEF is somewhat influenced by the climate in which it operates. If you live in a humid or chilly area, your automobile needs less DEF than if you do in a dry or hot climate.
The good news is that DEF is frequently offered straight at the pump at the majority of gas stations and truck stops, and it is quickly emerging as a standard. You may purchase enough fuel to cover your entire fleet of diesel vehicles.
In the event that you run out of DEF before refilling, the vehicle's speed will drop. It won't return to normal if you don't consume all of your beverages. if your car was hand-made
To Sum It Up
Comparable to replacing your diesel exhaust fluid, an oil change for a car. It could permanently damage your engine if you leave it running for too long. Keep a close check on your DEF levels, make sure you top them off frequently, and take pride in the idea that you're doing your part to protect the environment.